国内镜像源伪评测

根据自己的网络,如何选择一个适合自己的镜像源呢?可能大家使用的发行版不同,还好有了 docker 这个玩具,能使用不同的发行版镜像启动容器来测试。那么就选定国内知名的镜像源来个测试,供大家参考选择一个合适的发行版。如果是公有云服务器的话,肯定是选择厂商的镜像源啦,内网传输速度超快,所以这次的测试对公有云服务器毫无意义,仅仅针对于办公或家用网络哈。

国内知名镜像源

所属 官网 评价
清华 https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ 速度 NO.1
中科大 https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ 速度最差
163 https://mirrors.163.com/ 速度 NO.3
阿里云 https://mirrors.aliyun.com/ 速度 NO.2
华为 https://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/ 速度最快

测试系统

选用 debian 10 ,安装的软件包有 xfce4 gnome libreoffice vlc ,这三个包总大小 1014MB

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apt install xfce4 gnome libreoffice  vlc -d -y
0 upgraded, 1574 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 1014 MB of archives.
After this operation, 3471 MB of additional disk space will be used.

测试过程

测试环境

公司办公网络是千兆内网,外网访问速度最快能达到 50MB/s

测试方法很简单,使用 sed 替换掉原来的镜像域名就行,都使用 http 的方式下载 加上 -d 参数只下载即可

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#!/bin/bash
set -xue
sed -i 's/deb.debian.org/mirrors.aliyun.com/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
sed -i 's|security.debian.org/debian-security|mirrors.aliyun.com/debian-security|g' /etc/apt/sources.list
time apt update
time apt install xfce4 gnome libreoffice vlc -d -y

清华

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sed -i 's/deb.debian.org/mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
sed -i 's|security.debian.org/debian-security|mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security|g' /etc/apt/sources.list
apt update
[email protected]:/# time apt update
Get:1 http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian buster InRelease [122 kB]
Get:2 http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security buster/updates InRelease [39.1 kB]
Get:3 http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian buster-updates InRelease [49.3 kB]
Get:4 http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian buster/main amd64 Packages [7899 kB]
Get:5 http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security buster/updates/main amd64 Packages [85.3 kB]
Get:6 http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian buster-updates/main amd64 Packages [884 B]
Fetched 8195 kB in 2s (3821 kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
All packages are up to date.

apt install xfce4 gnome libreoffice vlc -d -y
0 upgraded, 1574 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 1014 MB of archives.
After this operation, 3471 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Fetched 1014 MB in 2min 3s (8246 kB/s)
Download complete and in download only mode

测试结果 Fetched 1014 MB in 2min 3s (8246 kB/s)

中科大

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sed -i 's/deb.debian.org/mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
sed -i 's|security.debian.org/debian-security|mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian-security|g' /etc/apt/sources.list
apt update
[email protected]:/# time apt update
Get:1 http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian buster InRelease [122 kB]
Get:2 http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian-security buster/updates InRelease [39.1 kB]
Get:3 http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian buster-updates InRelease [49.3 kB]
Get:4 http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian buster/main amd64 Packages [7899 kB]
Get:5 http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian-security buster/updates/main amd64 Packages [85.3 kB]
Get:6 http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian buster-updates/main amd64 Packages [884 B]
Fetched 8195 kB in 4s (1896 kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
All packages are up to date.

apt install xfce4 gnome libreoffice vlc -d -y
0 upgraded, 1574 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 1014 MB of archives.
Fetched 1005 MB in 37min 31s (446 kB/s)
E: Failed to fetch http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian/pool/main/t/totem/totem-common_3.30.0-4_all.deb Connection failed [IP: 202.141.176.110 80]
E: Failed to fetch http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian/pool/main/s/shotwell/shotwell_0.30.1-1_amd64.deb Connection failed [IP: 202.141.176.110 80]
E: Failed to fetch http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian/pool/main/d/dom4j/libdom4j-java_2.1.1-2_all.deb Connection failed [IP: 202.141.176.110 80]
E: Failed to fetch http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian/pool/main/x/xfonts-scalable/xfonts-scalable_1.0.3-1.1_all.deb Connection failed [IP: 202.141.176.110 80]
E: Some files failed to download

测试结果 Fetched 1005 MB in 37min 31s (446 kB/s) ,1000MB 的包下载用时将近 40 分钟

测试过程中多次出现 [Waiting for headers] 速度有几分钟都在17.6 kB/s 13h 58min 9s159 kB/s 1h 38min 9s 🤦‍♂️ ,其中还出现了 2850 PB/s 0s 😂

163

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sed -i 's/deb.debian.org/mirrors.163.com/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
sed -i 's|security.debian.org/debian-security|mirrors.163.com/debian-security|g' /etc/apt/sources.list
apt update
[email protected]:/# apt update
Get:1 http://mirrors.163.com/debian buster InRelease [122 kB]
Get:2 http://mirrors.163.com/debian-security buster/updates InRelease [39.1 kB]
Get:3 http://mirrors.163.com/debian buster-updates InRelease [49.3 kB]
Get:4 http://mirrors.163.com/debian buster/main amd64 Packages [7899 kB]
Get:5 http://mirrors.163.com/debian-security buster/updates/main amd64 Packages [85.3 kB]
Get:6 http://mirrors.163.com/debian buster-updates/main amd64 Packages [884 B]
Fetched 8195 kB in 3s (2939 kB/s)

apt install xfce4 gnome libreoffice vlc -d -y
0 upgraded, 1574 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 1014 MB of archives.

Fetched 1012 MB in 7min 21s (2295 kB/s)
Download complete and in download only mode

测试结果 Fetched 1012 MB in 7min 21s (2295 kB/s)

阿里云

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sed -i 's/deb.debian.org/mirrors.aliyun.com/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
sed -i 's|security.debian.org/debian-security|mirrors.aliyun.com/debian-security|g' /etc/apt/sources.list
[email protected]:/# apt update
Get:1 http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian buster InRelease [122 kB]
Get:2 http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian-security buster/updates InRelease [39.1 kB]
Get:3 http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian buster-updates InRelease [49.3 kB]
Get:4 http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian buster/main amd64 Packages [7899 kB]
Get:5 http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian-security buster/updates/main amd64 Packages [85.3 kB]
Get:6 http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian buster-updates/main amd64 Packages [884 B]
Fetched 8195 kB in 1s (6489 kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
All packages are up to date.

apt install xfce4 gnome libreoffice vlc -d -y
0 upgraded, 1574 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 1014 MB of archives.
After this operation, 3471 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Fetched 1014 MB in 2min 54s (5815 kB/s)
Download complete and in download only mode

测试结果 Fetched 1014 MB in 2min 54s (5815 kB/s)

华为

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sed -i 's/deb.debian.org/mirrors.huaweicloud.com/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
sed -i 's|security.debian.org/debian-security|mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian-security|g' /etc/apt/sources.list
apt update

[email protected]:/# apt update
Get:1 http://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian buster InRelease [122 kB]
Get:2 http://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian-security buster/updates InRelease [39.1 kB]
Get:3 http://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian buster-updates InRelease [49.3 kB]
Get:4 http://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian buster/main amd64 Packages [7899 kB]
Get:5 http://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian-security buster/updates/main amd64 Packages [85.0 kB]
Get:6 http://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian buster-updates/main amd64 Packages [884 B]
Fetched 8194 kB in 2s (4766 kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
All packages are up to date.

apt install xfce4 gnome libreoffice vlc -d -y
0 upgraded, 1574 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 1014 MB of archives.
After this operation, 3471 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Fetched 1014 MB in 1min 25s (12.0 MB/s)
Download complete and in download only mode

测试结果 Fetched 1014 MB in 1min 25s (12.0 MB/s)

不得不说华为云镜像站真香啊。进度条上基本上都是 10MB/s 以上,从没出现低于 10MB/s 的,甚至峰值能达到 20MB/s

附录—测试数据表格

xfce4 、gnome 、libreoffice 、 vlc 1574 个包,总大小 1014 MB 测试时间为白天工作时间

序号 清华 中科大 163 阿里云 华为云
1 8246 kB/s 446 kB/s 2295 kB/s 5815 kB/s 12.0 MB/s
2 462 kB/s 980 kB/s 5498 kB/s 2642 kB/s 15.8 MB/s
3 1144 kB/s 657 kB/s 1333 kB/s 5938 kB/s 13.1 MB/s

建议

根据一轮的测试速度来看,华为胜出😂

  1. 华为
  2. 阿里云
  3. 163
  4. 清华
  5. 中国科大

就这四个选择吧,也和本地的网络有关系,我的是电信网络。之前我的测试环境的服务器一直在使用中科大的镜像站,每次都很慢,今天一测才知道,中科大的镜像站这么慢啊,以后还是选择华为云吧。

撇开偏见,今天评论华为开源镜像站,前端 UI 无疑是国内镜像站里边做的最好的(虽然我不喜欢卡片式设计),下载速度是所有镜像站里面最快的(1574 个包,总大小 1014MB,平均都在 12MB/s 以上,峰值能达到 20MB/s)。其他的镜像站基本上都没能达到 10MB/s 以上。如果注册会员是不是下载速度翻倍,都能跑到 20MB/s 以上?